Strontium isotope dating achieves useful precision
Author contributions: J. The 15 archipelagos of East Polynesia, including New Zealand, Hawaii, and Rapa Nui, were the last habitable places on earth colonized by prehistoric humans. In a meta-analysis of 1, radiocarbon dates from the region, reliable short-lived samples reveal that the colonization of East Polynesia occurred in two distinct phases: earliest in the Society Islands A. We show that previously supported longer chronologies have relied upon radiocarbon-dated materials with large sources of error, making them unsuitable for precise dating of recent events. Our empirically based and dramatically shortened chronology for the colonization of East Polynesia resolves longstanding paradoxes and offers a robust explanation for the remarkable uniformity of East Polynesian culture, human biology, and language. Models of human colonization, ecological change and historical linguistics for the region now require substantial revision. During the last prehistoric expansion of modern humans, Polynesians from the Samoa-Tonga area dispersed through more than remote, subtropical to subantarctic islands of East Polynesia a cultural region encompassing the islands of New Zealand, Chathams, Auckland, Norfolk, Kermadecs, Societies, Cooks, Australs, Gambier, Tuamotu, Marquesas, Line, Rapa Nui, and Hawaii , an oceanic region the size of North America Fig. The timing and sequence of this expansion, debated vigorously since Europeans rediscovered the islands of East Polynesia 1 , 2 and most intensively with the advent of radiocarbon dating 3 , 4 , remains unresolved.
SwRI scientists demonstrate speed, precision of in situ planetary dating device
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Precision. U-Th dating yields the most accurate results if applied to precipitated calcium carbonate, that is in stalagmites, travertines.
Previous studies document Nukuleka in the Kingdom of Tonga as a founder colony for first settlement of Polynesia by Lapita peoples. A limited number of radiocarbon dates are one line of evidence supporting this claim, but they cannot precisely establish when this event occurred, nor can they afford a detailed chronology for sequent occupation. The potential for dating error due to post depositional diagenetic alteration of ancient corals at Nukuleka also is addressed through sample preparation protocols and paired dates on spatially separated samples for individual specimens.
Acropora coral files are widely distributed in Lapita sites across Oceania. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The final chapter for human settlement of the globe began late in the 2nd millennium BC. Maritime adapted Austronesian-speaking groups from the Bismarck Archipelago off coastal New Guinea migrated eastward crossing into the uninhabited islands of central Oceania, ultimately reaching Tonga and then Samoa on the western flank of the Polynesian triangle Figure 1.
High-precision radiocarbon dating of political collapse and dynastic origins at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala. The Ceibal-Petexbatun Archaeological Project has been conducting archaeological investigations at this site since and has obtained radiocarbon dates , which represent the largest collection of radiocarbon assays from a single Maya site. The Bayesian analysis of these dates , combined with a detailed study of ceramics, allowed us to develop a high-precision chronology for Ceibal.
Through this chronology, we traced the trajectories of the Preclassic collapse around AD and the Classic collapse around AD , revealing similar patterns in the two cases. Social instability started with the intensification of warfare around 75 BC and AD , respectively, followed by the fall of multiple centers across the Maya lowlands around AD and The population of Ceibal persisted for some time in both cases, but the center eventually experienced major decline around AD and
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High-precision U-series dating of Locality 1 at Zhoukoudian, China
This is a crucially important interval for understanding late human evolution and the reasons leading to the global dominance of our species. The project will allow, for the first time, the construction of a robust chronology for more than 50 key Palaeolithic sites dating to this period from Eastern Europe to Siberia. We will use advanced radiocarbon techniques, as well as other increasingly refined dating methods OSL, U-series and Bayesian statistics.
Previous radiocarbon dating, the main chronological tool for this period, is known now to be severely problematic, principally because of difficulties in removing contaminants from the samples.
Precision Dating and Cultural History of the La Pointe-Krebs House (22JA), Pascagoula, Mississippi, USA.
Labirint Ozon. The dramatic development of European oak chronologies over the last ten years parallels and supplements the bristlecone-pine chronology in the United States. Dendrochronologists can now provide a wood sample – a time capsule of biological material – for any calender date over the last seven millennia from two continents. For archaeologists, resigned to the imprecision of radiocarbon dating, the implications are profound.
For the first time it is possible to establish precise dates for prehistoric events. Similarly, we have an independent and scientifically objective way of testing historical accounts, such as the traditional Egyptian chronology. Equally fundamental are the insights provided by the related disciplines of dendroecology and dendroclimatology. Drawing on a further decade of research by himself and others, Mike Baille not only brings the pre story up to date, but demonstrates the wide and exciting applications of this comparatively new science.
He has written many articles on the subject and his book Tree-ring Dating and Archaeology described the early development of this revolutionary new science.
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FP7,PALAEOCHRON,ERC-AG-SH6,THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD(UK).
Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. The Par-Tee site 35CLT20 , located on the northern Oregon Coast, is a large archaeological collection excavated in the s and s. Radiocarbon dates have been obtained on materials from the Par-Tee collection by researchers since the s, but these data have not been assessed for chronometric hygiene. To establish a reliable chronology for the Par-Tee site, we obtained new high-resolution accelerator mass spectrometry AMS radiocarbon dates and collagen peptide mass fingerprinting of cervid bones.
We evaluate the new radiocarbon dates along with previous radiocarbon dates from the site, using chronometric hygiene assessments and Bayesian statistics to build a refined chronology. Read the article here. Submit Your Paper. Supports Open Access. View Articles.
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The measurement of a radiocarbon date is a complex business and ORAU is involved in all stages of the process from advice given prior to submission of samples right through to help with statistical interpretation and publication. Radiocarbon measurements are difficult to make with good precision and accuracy. This is because carbon is such an abundant element in the environment and so contamination from material of a different age is always possible. For these reasons the methods employed at a radiocarbon lab must be rigorous, well tested and reproducible.
Chemical abrasion isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) U-Pb dating of single-zircon crystals is preferably applied to tephra beds.
Here we present new high-precision 14 C In addition, these new age constraints provide compelling chronological evidence for the significance of the combined influence of the CI eruption and Heinrich Event 4 on European climate and potentially evolutionary processes of the Early Upper Palaeolithic. High-precision chronologies and robust correlations between stratigraphic records are of paramount importance for establishing the temporal sequence and relationship between natural events and ultimately for evaluating evolutionary processes.
Precision and accuracy in glacial geology
A Showcase of scholarship, research, and creativity at the university of southern mississippi. Grant L. Maxwell , Indiana University Joshua S. Despite being subjected to several independent archaeological and architectural studies, the exact calendar year s of construction for the original building and subsequent additions was unknown.
We identified and sampled 26 timbers throughout the structure that contained bark or a smooth, curved outer surface that would return near-cutting or cutting dates using techniques of dendroarchaeology.
Radiocarbon dating legacy collections: A Bayesian analysis of high-precision AMS 14C dates from the Par-Tee site, Oregon.
At the GUA meeting, researchers presented the latest record of the changing strontium isotope composition of seawater, which can now be used to date some marine sediments laid down during the past million years with unprecedented speed and accuracy. Marine strontium isotope records had been expanding only incrementally until William Burke and his colleagues at Mobil Research and Development Corporation in Dallas published their extraordinary record samples spanning the past million years.
In a way that only a major oil company could, the Mobil group traced a steady but uneven fall in the ratio of strontium to strontium that continued from near the Precambrian to about million years ago. Then the ratio began a steadier rise to its present value. Strontium isotope dating achieves useful precision. Author: Richard A. Date: Jan. From: Science Vol. Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Document Type: Article.
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With fiver lasers and a mass CODEX will be a little larger than a microwave and include seven lasers and a mass spectrometer. In situ measurements will address fundamental questions of solar system history, such as when Mars was potentially habitable. Then the other CODEX lasers selectively pick out and quantify the abundance of trace amounts of radioactive rubidium Rb and strontium Sr.
An isotope of Rb decays into Sr over known amounts of time, so by measuring both Rb and Sr, we can determine how much time has passed since the rock formed.
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This paper presents a new series of AMS dates on ultrafiltered bone gelatin extracted from identified cutmarked or humanly-modified bones and teeth from the site of Abri Pataud, in the French Dordogne. The sequence of 32 new determinations provides a coherent and reliable chronology from the site’s early Upper Palaeolithic levels , excavated by Hallam Movius. The results show that there were some problems with the previous series of dates, with many underestimating the real age.
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Uranium—thorium dating , also called thorium dating , uranium-series disequilibrium dating or uranium-series dating , is a radiometric dating technique established in the s which has been used since the s to determine the age of calcium carbonate materials such as speleothem or coral. Instead, it calculates an age from the degree to which secular equilibrium has been restored between the radioactive isotope thorium and its radioactive parent uranium within a sample.
Thorium is not soluble in natural water under conditions found at or near the surface of the earth, so materials grown in or from this water do not usually contain thorium. As time passes after such material has formed, uranium in the sample with a half-life of , years decays to thorium At secular equilibrium, the number of thorium decays per year within a sample is equal to the number of thorium produced, which also equals the number of uranium decays per year in the same sample.
In , John Joly , a professor of geology from the University of Dublin , found higher radium contents in deep sediments than in those of the continental shelf, and suspected that detrital sediments scavenged radium out of seawater.